ESCs convert control signals into motor drive power. Arduinos can make control signals on their own or in response to sensor input. An Arduino can be linked to an ESC to drive motors. A sketch running on the Arduino must ensure the control signals meet the timing requirements of the ESC.
On the other hand, there are robotics motor driver modules that use more primitive control signals, that are easier to interface to Arduino, because the sketch does not need to keep the timing requirements so carefully.
Yes, coding is needed to use Arduino, but it isn't C++; it is instead built upon C++ in a way that looks like C, removing much of the C++ complexity so it is easier to use by people who have not done much coding.
Unless you need to respond to sensors or run the robot automatically, you don't need to use an Arduino. A remote controlled robot would use just the remote control device, remote control receiver, and compatible ESCs.